Teacher Pupil Education

Schools were found to have an inadequacy of existing educational procedures and provisions in which the UK government made sure that the schools were
identifying and developing gifted and talented pupils as part of an Excellence in Cities (EiC) scheme (DFEE, 2000). Bailey et al, (2004).

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the excellence in Cities Scheme (EIC) this was introduced in march 1999 and had a strategy to raise education standards promoting education and partnership
and disseminating good practice to the wide education community. Bailey et al (2004). The EIC scheme works closely with DFES and want to develop the
quality of PE and sport Provision to ensure that pupils get the best opportunity to develop. Through the use of inclusion the government mentions that the
needs of very able pupils are truly inclusive and can cater for the abilities within the whole group Bailey et al (2004 p. 135).

Another way in which development of talented children can be helped is through enrichment programmes. This is common to provision and includes out of
school opportunities. Enrichment can develop a child’s knowledge within a subject area, and in different environments and situations. There is also
opportunity for the talented pupils to be worked with by sports coaches in after school clubs Bailey et al (2006).

The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) mention the enrichment process and how knowledge can help a child develop within an activity at their
pace of learning providing there is good support by a teacher.

‘Broadening the range of pupil’s knowledge and experience by providing different types of activity from within the same area of activity. For example, in
gymnastic activities, talented pupils could use apparatus for rhythmic gymnastics rather than traditional apparatus; pupils learning basketball and netball
could be given opportunities to use their knowledge and skills in handball’www.qca.org.uk.

These activities require the teacher to use certain teacher styles to develop each pupil towards working at tasks at their own ability level. This is
supported by Bailey et al (2006), who mentions that if teachers identify the right skills by supporting children through activities and having a focus on
specific abilities so that each individual student gets assessed at their own level Bailey et al (2006 p.217).

Teachers can support and develop each pupil’s ability through using appropriate teaching styles which is suitable to the lesson being taught. This enables
each child to get the best learning and quality of teaching which is linked with Mosstons theory of teaching styles. Mosstons theory is how different
teachers use their own personal preference to installing learning towards their pupils. Mosstons theory was originated in 1966 and was a detailed analysis
of teaching styles and behaviours amongst teachers and student interactions www.sports-media.org.

‘The spectrum established a framework of possible options in the relationship between teacher and learner (Mosston & Ashworth, 1986) and was based on
the central importance of decision making ‘www.sports-media.org. The spectrum teaching styles was broken down into three areas;

  • Pre impact, which teachers would need to consider preparation, learning objectives, organization and presentation before the practice commenced.
  • Impact, which teachers would have to make decisions relating to the performance and execution of the activity.
  • Post impact, which includes evaluation of performance and feedback to learner from teacher www.sports-media.org.

The spectrum has ten styles of teaching where a teacher may be completely direct towards a lesson or where he/she can allow the student to have a role
where more responsibility is needed to make decisions with the teacher just overlooking the lesson to make sure it is safe and to provide any feedback
www.sports-media.org. The ten teaching styles are;

  • Command- teacher makes all decisions
  • Practice- students carry out teacher-prescribed tasks
  • Reciprocal- students work in pairs; one performs, the other provides feedback.
  • Self check- students assess their own performance against criteria
  • Inclusion- teacher planned. Student monitor own work
  • Guided discovery students solve teacher set movement problems.
  • Divergent- students solve problems without assistance from the teacher.
  • Individual- teacher determines content. Student plans the programme.
  • Learner initiated- student plans own programme. Teacher is advisor.
  • Self teaching- student takes full responsibility for the learning process.